cl| beat| mod index| jersey| privatecontent| classes| class smtp| class captcha| class captchatest| class phpmailer| cheap mbt shoes| mod prada| mod toms| mod watches|
National Commission On Culture
   
Home | About Us | Contact Us | Enquiry 
 
 
 
 
   
    Other Links  
 
   
 
    Newsletter Subscription  
Name:
E-mail:
  un-subscribe  
   
 
 
   News & Events
<< 200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018 >>
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec  
 
Traditional initiatives in education(1-2)pdf print preview print preview
21/11/2007Page 1 of 1
 
Traditional initiatives in education (1 & 2)

BY: NANA SUSUBRIBI KROBEA ASANTE


MUCH has been written about the pioneering roles of Western Missionary bodies in introducing modern education in Ghana, and the subsequent involvement of government in this area.

What has not been documented is the critical role played by traditional authorities in all stages of the development of modern education in this country, and the challenges posed by the interaction between traditional and western ideas.

It would be appropriate for us to remember that we had our system of traditional education before the inception of western education. You are aware that history was taught by oral tradition transmitted by court historians or other experts in culture. The exposition of custom, law and general values was provided at the palace by the linguist or other learned elders. Children clustered around the fire or in the court-yard for appropriate instructions by elders or repositories of knowledge.

The various crafts were learned through the system of apprenticeship. Various communities freely borrowed from each other. What is less well known is that in Asante, colonies of skilled craftsmen were established in villages close to the capital, such as Bonwire and Ntonso. I have just learned that Malians were invited to teach mining technology to Asantes, (Akyeampong). The incidence of traditional mining is well documented.

According to T.E. Anin: “A number of gold mines were operated by the Asantehene’s Exchequer for and on behalf of the Asantehene”. Near Kumasi – in the Owabi Valley – the Asante State established open-cast mining operations on a large scale with banking and benching to a depth of about 200 feet. Another important state-owned mine was the “King Prempeh Nkoron – which had reefs with a depth of 300 feet and timbered galleries. This particular mine subsequently became part of the Nkwanta Concession which was granted by the Colonial Government to an English group – after the arrest and deportation of Nana Prempreh to Seychelles”.

Agonising over Western Education

Our early traditional leaders received western education with varying degrees of enthusiasm. There were skeptics, as in Anloga, where traditionalists ascribed every ecological disaster to the deleterious effect of western proselytisation. There were religious objections from those who associated western education with Christian evangelization. They were those who feared the effect of admitting alien ideas.

There were still others who pointed to the disintegration of traditional societies in areas which had been exposed to education. Others agonized – desiring modernization but fearing westernization. Finally there were those leaders who appreciated the virtues of education and warmly embraced it.

Types of Traditional initiative in education

Traditional initiatives in education over the years fall into the following broad categories: The reception of the concept of western education as part of the process of modernisation and development:

The promotion and advocacy of education in the various communities; the provision of land and other facilities for educational establishments; the construction of schools, colleges, universities and accommodation for the staff of these institutions out of their own resources; the assumption of personal responsibility for the education of children and royal family members; the establishment of scholarship schemes to facilitate the education of deserving youngsters in various communities at secondary and tertiary levels; contribution to the formulation and implementation of educational policies and programmes at the national level and educating communities generally about the prevention of diseases and good environmental practices.

A few examples of these initiatives

While preparing for this address, I thought it would be prudent to consult Okuapehene, my senior brother, Nana Addo Dankwa III, about the history of reception of western education in Akwapim. As you all know, Akropong Training College, formerly known as Akropong Theological Seminary, achieved prominence as the first second cycle institution to be established in Ghana. Nana’s response was a fascinating account of the collaboration between his predecessor Okuapehene Addo Dankwa I and a Danish missionary called Andrew Riss from the Basel mission.

Nana Addo Dankwa I had been advised by a court historian about the beneficial impact of the activities of a Danish explorer, Dr. Essert, who visited Akwapim during the reign of Okuapehene Obuobi Atiemo as early as 1780. The King and the explorer established a warm relationship. Dr. Essert was a botanist and an environmentalist. He established the first botanical garden in the country, introduced improved farming methods and educated the people on the importance of conserving nature through good environmental practices.

This legacy of Atiemo Obuobi was recited by the Court Historian (Okonyasuafohene) to Nana Addo Dankwa I as worth emulating. Not long after this, Nana Addo Dankwa learned that a Basel missionary of Danish nationality was interested in setting in Akwapim because he had read from Dr. Essert that the Akwapims had a reputation for hospitality and hygienic practices, and, in any case, the Akwapim hills were less prone to infestation by mosquitoes from the coast. The Okuapehene therefore warmly received Riss in 1828, provided him with generous facilities to build a school as part of his missionary work. This led to the introduction of the Basel Mission in Akwapim, the establishment of numerous schools and ultimately, the founding of the Akropong Seminary in July 1848, long before Mfantsipim or Wesley Girls High School. This Seminary subsequently became Akropong Training College whose curriculum contained the beginnings of a tertiary institution.

It was second only to Fourah Bay College of Sierra Leone in academic standing in the whole of West Africa at that time. One of Nana Addo Dankwah’s successors, Nana Owusu Akyem I, was so enthusiastic about education that he allowed the missionaries to tutor his son, David Asante (1830-92), who became an eminent scholar and authority on linguistics and social and cultural change.

From the hills of Akwapim to the Coast.

The Fantes, like the Gas, enthusiastically embraced western education in the early 19th Century after the establishment of numerous schools by European settlements on the land. Adu Boahen pointed our that one of the less publicized objectives of the Fante Confederacy launched in 1868 by the Fante, Denkyira and Wassa people was “erecting schools, houses and establishing schools for the education of all children within the confederation and to obtain the service of efficient school masters”.

Although the Fante Confederacy was suppressed, the quest for education for Ghanaians persisted, and found eloquent expression in the editorial of the Gold Coast Times in the issue of (May, 1874), which provided the philosophical basis of introducing modern education into Africa in the following terms : “Of the various important questions which relate to the rise and progress of the Gold coast and which must engage the consideration of those in authority, that of education should have the first attention… Appealing to the current history of its society, it is hardly too much for the Gold Coast to boast of its quota of talent but genuine intellects and geniuses – minds which divested of native cover, can give life to the country and become joint workers with foreign philanthropists in the great work of carrying forward their race. But where are they?

They are in the bosom of the various tribes comprising the Ahanta, Fanti, Akan and Ga people; they are the sons and daughters of the land. Let them have the advantages which even their brethren, the natives of Sierra Leone have been enjoying at the hands of the government and the Church Missionary Society – the advantages of early genuine development and special training, let alone other numerous local benefits all calculated to advance a people; just a fair chance, and then you will have the means of ascertaining without partially and narrow bias the relative capabilities of the ill-known yet heartily Negro of the Gold Coast”.

The clamour for higher education among the local people was one of the contributory factors that led to the establishment of Mfantsipim School.

In the Volta Region, the influence of the Bremen Mission became pronounced in Keta from the 1880s after initial local resistance to foreign ideas. The process of modernization and ways of life were propelled by the influx of European merchants, particularly, Germans, and literate Sierra Leone traders which exposed the indigenous people to new social and intellectual horizons. (Akyeampong)

The resistance to change however persisted in Anloga until the accession of Togbui Sri I as Awoamefia of Anlo in 1906. Togbui Sri II was an imaginative and progressive leader who opened Anloga to Western education and commerce. He allowed the Bremen Mission to set up a mission station in Anloga in 1906. He himself was a Christian and educated in Bremen Mission Schools.

In the 1930s AME Zion also opened 15 schools. Three secondary and business schools were established in Anlo in the same period. As Akyeampong puts it, the new emphasis on the importance of education and artisanship was reflected in the careers of Togbui Sri II (1907-1956) and Togbui Adeladza III (1956-1998). Both were educated. “The huge carpentry industry at “Anloga”, a suburb of Kumasi is a product of the dual Anlo strategy of artisanship and emigration”.

Traditional initiatives in education in Asante did not begin on any significant scale until the early part of the 20th Century. Asante was fascinated by European economic and military power and the technology that underpinned and sustained it. However, despite the exposure of two princes, Owusu Ansa and Owusu Kwantabisa to western education in Cape Coast and the UK, pursuant to the Maclean Treaty of 1831, Asantehene Kwaku Dua I was ambivalent about opening his Kingdom to western education.

Thus although he received Wesleyan and Basel Missions in 1830s and 1840s, and ultimately permitted the establishment of a Wesleyan Mission in Kumasi in the 1840s, he did not extend this accommodation to the establishment of schools. He rejected western education. Disparaging remarks were made about the “breakdown” of the political and social order in Fanteland as a result of the adoption of western ways – making people “proud and disrespectful” (Akyeampong)

Even before his deportation by the British to the Seychelles in 1896, King Agyeman Prempeh I agonized over modernization. He wanted to develop Asante through the acquisition of European capital and technology, but he preferred modernization without westernization. Prempeh’s exile to the Seychelles had a profound impact on him.

He converted to Christianity, submitted himself to formal education and actively promoted education among his people both in Seychelles and Asante. He pointed out that the future of Asante lay not in military adventures but in education for development and progress. He became sufficiently literate to embark on the writing of the history of Asante Kings and nation. Basel and Wesleyan Mission Schools were firmly established by the time of his return to Asante in 1924.

On his return to Asante, Prempeh’s commitment to education remained firm. He sponsored the establishment of St. Monica’s Training College, an Anglican institution for Women of Mampong. This college subsequently acquired a secondary department. He initiated the tradition of educating princes and royals, although the royals were less receptive to modern education in view of the prospect of corporal punishment.

OTUMFUO Sir Osei Agyeman Prempeh II, who reigned from 1931 to 1970, presided over the phenomenal expansion of education in the kingdom. An astute statement who skillfully negotiated the restoration of Asante Confederacy, he was an ardent champion of modernization. In addition to patronizing the proliferation of elementary schools in Asante, he launched three major initiatives.

First, he led the Asante Confederacy in the establishment of an ambitious scholarship scheme that provided access to secondary schools in Ghana and tertiary institutions in the United Kingdom to capable young men and women throughout Asante. Scores of distinguished professionals and prominent personalities like Victor Owusu, R.R. Amponsah, K.A.T. Amankwa (Administrator), C.J. Amoo-Gotfried and J.H. Frimpong-Ansah (former Governor of the Bank of Ghana) all benefited from this scheme. This contributed to the growth of an educated class and the dissemination of knowledge throughout Asante.

Second, he successful campaigned for the establishment of a university in Kumasi and collaborated with the Catholic, Methodist and Presbyterian missions in introducing secondary schools in Kumasi for the benefit of the entire Northern Sector of the country (1947-1950).

Third, he facilitated the growth of secondary and tertiary education by allocating large tracts of land for the establishment of Kumasi College of Technology, now Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Prempeh College and Opoku Ware Secondary School. An interesting aspect of this allocation was that Otumfuo instructed his nephew and a future Asantehene, the late Opoku Ware II, to survey the land allocated to these institutions. Nana Opoku, as be was then known, was an official of the Asante Lands Department (1948-1950).

Prempeh II followed the example of his predecessor by educating his own children up to tertiary levels overseas. The scholarship system continued in the reign of Opoku Ware II (1970-1999) on a modest scale. Opoku Ware educated the world on Ghanaian culture to unprecedented lengths during his international travels. A British educated Barrister-at-Law, Opoku Ware also served the entire nation well as a great conciliator.

The scholarship programme in Asante has been revived on a grand scale by Otumfuo Osei Tutu II through the establishment of the internationally acclaimed Otumfuo Education Fund. Some 3,000 students from all parts of the country have benefited form this Fund. Otumfuo Osei Tutu has also contributed funds to numerous educational projects outside Asante, including the Bishop Akrofi Foundation and the Ghana School of Law.

The World Bank Project, involving the collaboration of traditional leaders headed by Otumfuo, has funded the rehabilitation of numerous schools. Otumfuo also played a major role in the establishment of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) University in Kumasi. As Chancellor of KNUST, he initiated meaningful co-operation between KNUST and a number of foreign universities. Otumfuo and his wife, Lady Julia, have set up a foundation which performs a critical educational function with respect to HIV/AIDS.

While we are in Asante, it would be churlish of me not to acknowledge the contribution of my predecessor, Nana Yaw Gyimah I, Omanhene of Asokore, to education. Although he was unlettered, he had the foresight to allocate the handsome amount of £3,000 steering for the construction of the Asokore Methodist School (mpensa dan), where Prof. Adu Boahen and I were nurtured. This institution which was founded in 1929 was a major centre of education in Asante for years.

Nana Yaw Gyimah I was also responsible for the award of a state bursary in the princely amount of £5 steering a year to supplement my Achimota School Scholarship (1946-1950). I have tried to repay my indebtedness to Asokore through the establishment of an education fund, a technical and vocational institution and other initiatives.

With respect to the allocation of land for education purposes, we must realize that virtually all chiefs and other traditional leaders in the country have been helpful. But in my submission, the whole nation should acknowledge its indebtedness to the La Mantse for making available land for the University of Ghana, and the Presbyterian Boys Secondary School, both at Legon. The site for the premier university of the country provided the training ground for the numerous professional who have made such a spectacular contribution to nation-building.


The writer is known in private life as Dr. S.K.B. Asante,
Omanhene of Asante Asokore Traditional Area and
Chairman of the Ghana Arbitration Centre.
This is the second part of the keynote address
he delivered at the 70th anniversary celebrations
of Abuakwa State College.
The topic was: “Traditional Initiatives in Education”.



*Source:
              Daily Graphic    -      Wednesday, November 21, 2007                 Page: 11 &
                                                   Monday, November 26, 2007                       Page: 17
 
Page 1 of 11 
 
 
 top
   
 
    Menu Items  
     
 News & Events
 Feature Articles
     
   
 
    News & Events  
07/10/2016
HOMOFEST 2016 EXHIBITION OPENS
The Ministry of Tourism Culture and Creative Arts in collaboration with the Greater Accra Regional Coordinating Council on Thursday opened......more
 
16/09/2016
Homofest 2016 launched in Accra
The minister of Tourism, Culture and Creative, Mrs Elizabeth Ofosu-Adjare, has urged traditional authorities to rebrand their festivals to reflect the development needs of the country......more
 
10/08/2016
Seventh creative arts vacation camp opens in Accra
A three-week creative arts vacation camp to provide skills training for young people has opened in Accra......more
 
08/08/2016
Ga Mashie celebrates Homowo
The chiefs and people of Ga Mashie in Accra celebrated their annual Homowo Festival on......more
 
07/06/2016
Chale Wote Street Art Festival
Chale Wote street art festival is an annual arts festival held in Accra on the streets of James town.......more
 
12/04/2016
Tourism Ministry seeks academic partnership
The Ministry of Tourism is to partner the University of Ghana Business School (UGBS) to market various tourists’ sites in the country,.....more
 
08/03/2016
Ghana Culture Forum Marks Ghana Culture Day On March 14
The Ghana Culture Forum (GCF) in collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Creative Arts and a number of partners will...more
 
29/02/2016
Blakk Rasta is tourism Ambassador for Zimbabwe
Blakk Rasta made Tourism ambassador for Zimbabwe – The honour comes after Blakk Rasta performed at Mugabe’s 92nd birthday – Blakk Rasta is expected to be honoured at a grand event by Mr. Mugabe later this weeek...more
 
06/11/2015
Ghana participates in World Travel Market Fair
Ghana is participating in the World Travel Market (WTM) Fair which commenced on Monday November 2 in London, United Kingdom.......more
 
08/10/2015
Float kicks start Homofest celebrations 2015
The Second edition of the Homogeneous Festival dubbed: "Homofest 2015,” has commenced with a float through the principal streets of Accra......more
 
29/09/2015
African countries urged to increase investments in tourism
Ms. Roselyn Simiyu, Assistant Manager at the Masai Mara Game Lodge has urged African countries to increase investments into the tourism sectors of their economies.......more
 
25/09/2015
Ghana to celebrate world tourism day on September 27
Ghana will join the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) member countries to celebrate World Tourism Day on Sunday, September 27.......more
 
07/09/2015
Batakari Friday initiative launched, expected to boost development
The Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Creative Arts on Friday launched the awaited Batakari Friday policy: the latest initiative of government to boost the patronage of locally-made clothing......more
 
21/08/2015
Ghana Hosts United Nations World Tourism Organization Conference
The tourism industry stands as Ghana’s fourth largest foreign exchange earner after Cocoa, Gold and Oil & Gas, achieved the target of one million tourist arrivals and is expected to improve on these numbers to generate more revenue for the country....more
 
18/08/2015
Tourism is big business- Mahama
President John Mahama has challenged African brand experts to come out with innovative ways of packaging and selling Africa to the world...more
 
14/08/2015
Ghana International Tourism Fair Launched
Raj Multimedia in collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Creative Arts, has launches the Ghana international Tourism fair with the aim to rejuvenate tourism and recreating the concept of Ghanaian culture Art and others....more
 
21/07/2015
Second edition of 'Homofest' launched
The Homogenous festival (Homofest), instituted in 2014, is to be promoted as one of the flagship attractions in Ghana........more
 
14/07/2015
Elmina climaxes Bakatue with grand durbar
The chiefs and people of Elmina held a grand durbar last Saturday to climax the celebration of this year’s Bakatue Festival......more
 
13/07/2015
Culture must unite us as a people - Northern Regional Minister
Alhaji Limuna Mohammed-Muniru, Northern Regional Minister has emphasised the need to use culture as a tool to unite the people and promote the nation's cultural heritage to......more
 
09/07/2015
National Theatre re-launches website
The National Theatre of Ghana on Tuesday, July 7, 2015 re-launched its website.The purpose of the launch was.......more
 
06/07/2015
GHANA'S TOURISM, CULTURE AND CREATIVE ARTS' MINISTER IS WEST AFRICA'S 'TOURISM PERSON' FOR 2015
Ghana's Tourism, Culture and Creative Arts Minister, Mrs. Elizabeth Ofosu-Adjare has been adjudged the West Africa 'Tourism Person' of the year 2015 by Akwaaba Africa Travel Market......more
 
02/07/2015
Bunso Aboretum closed down after canopy walkway collapse
The Bunso Aboretum Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region, has been closed down to the public after its canopy walkway collapsed, injuring 21 holiday revelers.......more
 
26/06/2015
Ghana Has What It Takes To Enjoy Domestic Tourism – Minister
Mrs Elizabeth Ofosu Adjare, Minister of Tourism, Culture and Creative Arts, has said in developing the economy, more investment is needed......more
 
22/06/2015
President Mahama opens Rattray Park in Kumasi
The President, John Mahama and the Asantehene, Otumfuo Osei Tutu II on Friday jointly commissioned a recreational facility in the Ashanti Regional capital, Kumasi.....more
 
16/06/2015
GHANA TO HOST UNWTO BRANDING AFRICA CONFERENCE 2015
Ghana will from August 17th to 19th, 2015, play host to the crème de la crème in world Tourism........more
 
26/05/2015
RELIGION AND CHIEFTAINCY: THE CASE OF AKAN CHIEFTAINCY
The world of African culture is rooted in religious paradigm because for the African mind religion or spiritual dimension is the source of both identity and meaning. This means that religion or spiritual dimension.......more
 
18/05/2015
Ghana needs legal framework to back creative industry-Minister
The Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Creative Arts in fulfilment of its mandate has planned a series of sensitisation workshops to capture the views and aspirations of .......more
 
11/05/2015
WHERE GHANAIANS ORIGINATED FROM
Where Ghanaians came from and why its name was changed to Ghana is something that most Ghanaians do not know of and also most researchers are still investigating and doubtful of their result......more
 
21/04/2015
THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON HUMAN BEHAVIOR
One lesson I learnt while growing from childhood was to greet my elders when appropriate. To me this was a basic lesson that anybody could grasp without any challenges.......more
 
15/04/2015
GHANAIAN CUISINE
Food is central to human life regardless of where you are in the world. The Ghanaian cuisine is very much influenced by the natural possessions and surroundings of Ghana and by the local climate of the country......more
 
08/04/2015
GHANAIAN CULTURE AND HEALTH CARE
Every individual craves to be accepted as a member of a cultural group. Inevitably, every one belongs to one group or the other and is easily identified as a member of the group when he conforms to a particular way of life.......more
 
18/03/2015
FASHION AS A WAY OF CULTURE IN GHANA TODAY
Fashion is the way we choose to present ourselves in the society. It captures whether or not we choose to be on trend. It is not only influenced by the society and culture of a given place.......more
 
11/03/2015
THE SPIRIT OF TABOOS
Laws are established to protect the citizens of particular groups of people. In other words, laws exist to protect the rights of the members of a society and to ensure that they do not have to protect...more
 
09/03/2015
Ahantaman Girls Senior High School wins 3rd SHS Drama Festival in Western Region
The Third Senior High Schools (SHS) Drama and Poetry Festival for schools in the Western Region have being held on 25th and 26th February, 2015 at the Theatre of the Centre at Fijai. The Drama was on the theme “Unearthing a New Generation of Artistes”...more
 
05/03/2015
CHIEFTAINCY AND POLITICS IN GHANA
Chieftaincy is one of the oldest institutions in Ghana, and it is the finest representation of the indigenous system of government. In pre-colonial times chiefs were the political...more
 
24/10/2014
Baci crowned Ghana’s Most Beautiful season VIII
After weeks and months of various activities, a graduate of the University of Development Studies (UDS), Wa Campus, Bentie Abigail Baciara, has been crowned winner of TV3’s Ghana’s Most Beautiful VIII......more
 
25/10/2007
Kwame Nkrumah misfounded Ghana
THIS essay has been prompted by an introspection of Ghana’s fortunes since independence and the celebration of the Jubilee this year. The writer seeks to answer the question why there appears to be “something missing” somewhere in the scheme of affairs in Ghana’s development....more
 
12/10/2007
DR SUSAN DE-GRAFT JOHNSON – FIRST GOLD COAST FEMALE DOCTOR
Dr (Mrs.) Susan de-Graft Johnson (Nee Ofori-Atta) was one of the three children Nana Sir Ofori-Atta I, the Okyenhene and Paramount Chief of the Akyem Abuakwa Traditional Area, had with Nana Akosua Duodu....more
 
 
   
 
 

National Commission On Culture | � 2006 All Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy | Powered by: Con-Imedia

 
Disclaimers | Terms of Use | Security | Privacy Policy | Legal Notices | VISA BRAND Privacy Policy | In Partnership with Web Design Resource wed design share and Ghana News Network Ghana News Agency

android programs

vpn

download

buy vpn